However, the work dates back to the 17th century in France, where our bourgeois is moving to town, a difficult endeavour. Peasants fleeing the countryside were sometimes asked to pay the Taille for the ten years following their leaving for towns. Moreover, when these peasants arrived in town, many had to provide a financial guarantee to the municipality where they wanted to settle. This information is available from W. H. Lewis Splendid Century, an online publication. Simply click on Splendid Century.
Reading Chapter VII will also provide you with the following information on Capuchins in the 17th century.
“The attitude of the corps de ville towards the admission of religious orders within the walls was a cautious one, for the establishment of a new religious house raised all sorts of municipal problems. Would the parish priest’s income fall off? Would the revenue of the other houses of religious decline? If the order was a mendicant one, what would be the effect on the town charities? Teaching orders were, however, welcome, and so too were the popular Capuchins, for a curious reason. Fire brigades did not exist before 1699, and, somehow or other, the Capuchins had become expert firefighters; in emergencies, in which the modern Londoner dials “fire,” the seventeenth-century householder sent for the Capuchins. Finally, all towns fought hard, but generally unsuccessfully, to prevent the Jesuits settling in their midst.” [I]
One reason for moving to a town was tax exemption. One cannot generalize because of discrepancies from town to town, but the bourgeois was often exempt of taxation, the Taille in particular, an onerous tax.
Peasants were trampled on shamelessly, depending on their Seigneur. Again, one cannot generalize, except cautiously.
My best regards to all of you.
[I] W. H. Lewis, TheSplendid Century: Life in the France of Louis XIV (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957 ), p. 162.
In seventeenth-century France, it was of the utmost importance for the nobility to be in Paris. France was ruled not by Dukes, the highest rank among the nobility, and other aristocrats, but by chief ministers: Richelieu (9 September 1585 – 4 December 1642) and Mazarin (14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661). Aristocrats therefore feared losing power. Consequently, they lived close to court and they rebelled. La Fronde(des nobles and des parlements) was a series of civil wars that took place in France between 1648 and 1653.
To be seen by the king
When Louis XIV ascended the throne, in 1661, after Mazarin death, aristocrats were further humiliated. Louis refused to have a chief minister: “L’État, c’est moy.” As for members of his Conseil d’en haut (FR),en haut meant upstairs at Versailles, they were not members of the aristocracy. Louis’s closest advisors, le Conseil d’en haut, were members of the bourgeoisie.
Aristocrats therefore made sure they had a home in Paris as well as a carriage and fine horses. They wore clothes that had been purchased from the “bonnefaiseuse,” (designer clothes or the right brand of clothes [faiseur; faiseuse: maker]) so they would be allowed at court. The term “bonne faiseuse” is used in Molière’sPrécieuses ridicules (18 November 1659). Louis XIV lived publicly and according to a protocol. It was a privilege for courtiers to be present when Louis got up in the morning, le petit lever et le grand lever, and when he went to bed: the petit coucher, le grand coucher.
Therefore, as mentioned in an earlier article, the seventeenth century saw a gradual impoverishment of France’s aristocracy, which made it increasingly difficult for the nobility to provide dowries for several daughters. Moreover, there were affluent bourgeois who wanted a daughter to marry an aristocrat so they would leave the bourgeoisie, but could not afford to endow more than one daughter. Impoverished aristocrats marrying middle-class women did so in order to live in a style befitting their rank. In fact, marrying the right bourgeois could also be very expensive. Many were rich and some, very rich.
Molière’s Bourgeois gentilhomme,The Middle-Class Aristocrat (10 October 1670), provides a fine example of a bourgeois, monsieur Jourdain, who wants his daughter to marry an aristocrat so he will be an aristocrat. In order to marry Lucille, Jourdain’s daughter who loves him, Cléonte has to stage a turquerie, a play-within-a-play designed to fool monsieur Jourdain into believing his daughter is marrying the son of the Sultan of Turkey. We already know about turqueries.
For many of these young women, relegated to a cul de couvent, the hellhole of a convent,[i] going to New France was their chance to live a normal life. So far from being filles de joie, some filles du roy were almost literally filles du roy. Others were the daughters of a bourgeois who had paid so dearly for marrying a daughter to an aristocrat or an affluent bourgeois that other daughters had to enter a convent or marry “sans dot,” without a dowry, a husband who may not have been of their choosing. Moreover, there were poor bourgeois and orphaned or illegimate daughters who also had to be given an inexpensive roof: a convent.
So the Filles du Roy were not filles de joie. They came from convents. What they did not know is that they would live a difficult life in New France as would, two hundred years later, English-Canadian Susannah Moodie (6 December 1803 – 8 April 1885). When I first read Margaret Atwood‘s Journals of Susannah Moodie, I thought of the filles du roy.